In the 1940s, the Scottish-born zoologist Ivan T. Sanderson began using
a word he coined, "cryptozoology," to describe a new subdiscipline of
zoology that studied hidden, as yet-to-be-discovered large animals. In
the late 1950s, after a decade of correspondence with Sanderson, Belgian
zoologist Bernard Heuvelmans began formalizing "cryptozoology." Today,
their precise approaches to the passion and patience of the field has
grown into a more scientifically-aware cryptozoology.
Once again (see 2000-2003 links below), I review the top stories of the
year, which garnered the most media attention, and mention others that
should have perhaps received more notice for other cryptids.
- The Discovery of Homo floresiensis
The story is
as remarkable as the finding of the first coelacanth, the 65 million
year extinct "living fossil" found off Africa in 1938. The biggest
story in anthropology for 2004 may become the event of the decade
within cryptozoology. The editor of Nature, Henry Gee, in an
editorial entitled "Flores, God and Cryptozoology," wrote: "The
discovery that Homo floresiensis survived until so very
recently, in geological terms, makes it more likely that stories of
other mythical, human-like creatures such as Yetis are founded on
grains of truth....Now, cryptozoology, the study of such fabulous
creatures, can come in from the cold."
Richard Klyver / Loren Coleman 2004
This is a new interpretation of the Flores woman,
Homo floresiensis, by wildlife artist Richard Klyver. It is based on
the 2004 Australian and Indonesian discovery viewed in terms of
Loren Coleman's cryptozoology research on recent evidence, such as
sightings and folklore, of Asia's unknown hominoids.
On October 27, 2004, Nature announced an entirely new species of
Homo, concurrently living with modern humans (Homo sapiens),
from the Indonesian island of Flores. The team of scientists (Peter
Brown, T. Sutikna, Mike Morwood, R. P. Soejono, M. W. Moore, D. R.
Hobbs, M. I. Bird, and several other Australians and Indonesians)
involved in the discovery and analyses of the Flores people thought
they were at first dealing with children, but soon realized this was
a group of fully-grown 3 feet (one meter) tall hominids, a new
species, who lived as recently as 13,000 years ago. Christened with
the new name, Homo floresiensis, the type specimen is a 30
year old female, with the subfossilized remains of six other
individuals also being found in the same cave.
Local natives on Flores have one hundred year old legends of a small
hairy people, the Ebu Gogo, and clues from these tales will be
employed to find new caves to explore for evidence of their former
little habitants. While Sumatra's Orang Pendek has been mentioned
in the same context as the media nicknamed "Hobbits" of Flores, the
more relevant cryptids are not anthropoids, but the fully manlike
ones, such as the Nittaewo, the three feet tall hairy hominids of
ancient Ceylon (Sri Lanka) -- mentioned by Pliny in the first
century -- who were said to exist to the end of the 18th Century.
It is time to look again at reports of little people, with an eye
to the discovery of their subfossil remains and living existence,
from Sri Lanka to the South Pacific. As many cryptozoologists have
been saying for years about these unknown hairy hominid reports: "We
are not alone." Now we know that is assuredly true.
- The Bili Ape
In the forests near the towns of Bondo and Bili, Democratic Republic of
Congo, evidence (in the form of fecal droppings, eyewitness sightings,
bone discoveries, and a videotape) has mounted of a probable new species
or subspecies of giant ape that kills lions. The Bili Ape apparently
mixes some traits of gorillas and chimpanzees. The animals have large,
black faces, are six feet tall and have pronounced sagittal crests.
Anthropologist Colin Groves at Australian National University, and
Shelly Williams, a US primatologist affiliated to the Jane Goodall
Institute, reported The New Scientist, are doing joint research
compiling their findings.
- Ogopogo Resurfaces
The year 2004 was a low-key one for monster reports at Loch Ness, but
the famed but lesser known water cryptids, Ogopogo in British Columbia
and Champ in Lake Champlain were active. For example, the Casorso family
saw and took videotape of a 30 feet long black Ogopogo on August 9th,
and researcher Arlene Gaal said that at least nine sightings of the
creature occurred in 2004.
- Nicolas Cage Brings Media Attention to Yeti
The Abominable Snowmen have a way of getting easy media attention. In
2003, Pepsi sponsored a Japanese expedition in search of the Yeti, and
Disney announced that 2005 might be the Year of the Yeti because of
their new exhibition in Orlando. So it is not surprising to hear that
Nicolas Cage, the actor in 2004's successful movie, National Treasure,
was telling the trade magazines that "scientists are convinced that
somewhere in the Asian mountains of Tibet there is a short red-haired
two-legged ape man....I'm fascinated by that kind of thing; fascinated
by the as-yet undiscovered, but possible. I like anything that makes you
wonder; that isn't totally spelled out for you."
- Yukon Bigfoot
In June, a "Bushman" sighting near Teslin, Yukon, a Tlingit village,
became the most frequently discussed Bigfoot story of the year. Marion
Sheldon and Gus Jules were driving down the side of the highway on an
all-terrain vehicle. Suddenly they saw a human-shaped thing "completely
covered in hair" that "took just two strides to get across the whole
Alaska highway," reported conservation officer Dave Bakica Earlier on
May 17, a Bigfoot was seen in south-central British Columbia, near
Kamloops. In August, Jennifer Ward saw a Skunk Ape near Lakeland,
- Gahanna Lion
Many mystery cats, usually described as black panthers or unknown maned
felids, were sighted around the world, from Australia to North America.
But none got as much press time as the Columbus, Ohio suburb's Gahanna
Lion, first reported in the spring and seen throughout the summer. A
small safari, including a helicopter, never was able to catch up with
the elusive monster cat. "I'm convinced it's a 300-pound to 400-pound
African lion," Deputy Police Chief Larry Rinehart said at the start of
the search, in May. "We're scurrying. It's a heck of a day." Meanwhile,
around New Boston, Illinois, reports of a cougar in November and
December appeared confirmed, to the surprise of state conservation
officials, when a dead one was found in a backyard on December 4th.
- Elmendorf's "Chupacabras"
In May, Elmendorf, Texas farmer, Devin McAnally, shot an animal that was
eating berries on his property, and he thought it might be the creature
that had been bothering his chickens. Photographs of the hairless, gray,
weathered carcass circulated on the internet as a possible Chupacabras.
People were saying the animal was a monkey, a muntjac deer, or a
marsupial species. What are all these dead animals reported in
Elmendorf, Beeville, and Pollok, Texas or the live ones videotaped at
Glyndon and Joppa, Maryland, or photographed at Asheboro, North
Carolina? Examination of the remains and the photographs clearly showed
that the animals from Texas and Maryland were probably coyotes, and the
one from North Carolina was a fox, all suffering with sarcoptic mange
caused by scabies. The Sarcoptes scabiei (variety canis) mites burrow
and lay eggs under the skin of the animals, with massive hair loss
spreading to the entire body. This was a case of misidentification, it
turned out, on a national scale. These animals do not thus belong
in cryptozoology, and the mysterious Chupacabras remain phantoms, at
best, yet again, for another year.
- Chinese Lake Monster Expedition
In September, Chinese scientists launched an expedition to search for
their fabled Lake Monsters in northwest China's Xinjiang region,
inhabiting Altay Prefecture's Kanasi Lake. The creatures were said to
have been devouring livestock (horses, sheep, and cattle).
- New Courses in Cryptozoology
Academia was positively impacted in 2004 by cryptozoology courses
offered at American colleges and by a Swedish organization.
Cryptozoology credit classes were taught by Harrison Demchick at Oberlin
College in Ohio, and Scott Marlowe at Florida Keys Community College
and the Pangea Institute in Florida. Also, mainstream journal The Scientist
reported that GUST [Global Underwater Search Team], founded by Jan-Ove
Sundberg of Motala, Sweden, will be starting the world's first school
for cryptozoologists next year.
- Another Good Year for Animal Discoveries
species, long thought extinct forms, and new subspecies,
turned up in 2004, including a shark, a tiger, a peccary, birds, and
rodents, demonstrating, once again, there are more new animals out
there to be found. And then there is the story of a new Himalayan
Late in December, scientists in India found a new species of macaque
monkey, in the extreme northeastern area of India's Arunachal
Pradesh territory. It is locally known as the Munzala, which means
the "deep forest monkey", in the Monpa dialect of the Buddhist tribe
of the West Kamang and Tawang areas. But primatologists only
observed it in the wild in the last several months. The researchers
are proposing that the monkey, which they have dubbed the Arunachal
macaque, be given the scientific designation of Macaca munzala when
the details of its discovery are published in an upcoming issue of
the International Journal of Primatology. These monkeys are
generally large, heavyset, and dark brown, according to the
preliminary research. This new species lives at one of the highest
altitudes of any primate, in the broad-leaved forests of India's
sparsely populated northeastern mountains, at elevations more than
11,400 feet (about 3500 meters). Researchers cite this as one
possible reason that the monkey was not previously recognized as a
new species. Cryptozoologists point out that this species is
ethnoknown in the area, which was formerly called "the Hump" during
World War II by Flying Tigers and Slick Airways pilots who flew supplies from
India to China, and is a biological wellspring. In addition to the
new macaque, researchers point out that India's leaf deer, black
barking deer, and Chinese goral also inhabit the region.
Popular Culture Update
Cryptozoology showed up in a comic book - "Swamp Thing" with a
cryptozoologist named "Coleman Wadsworth." And Bigfoot continued to
thrill, at the Vancouver (British Columbia) Museum's temporary exhibit "Sasquatch!"
- while the long-sought missing Crookston Bigfoot found a permanent home
in Portland, Maine's International Cryptozoology Museum. In December, Canberra cryptozoologist, Tim the Yowie Man, won his case against Australia's multi-national corporate behemoth, Cadbury Schweppes, when the courts ruled in his favor. The corporation was attempting to disallow the trademark of "Tim the Yowie Man" because they have candies named "Yowie." The judge found that children would not become confused between Cadbury Schweppes' chocolate products and
Tim the Yowie Man.
Molly Izzard, 84, adventurer and writer, died, February 4, 2004. She was
the widow of Ralph Izzard, the newsman, explorer, and author of
for the Buru (Fresno, CA: Craven Street/Linden Press, 2001)
and The Abominable Snowman Adventure (London: Hodder & Stoughton,1955)/Abominable Snowman (NY: Doubleday, 1955).
Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, 97, the gentle woman who gained
international renowned as an
amateur ichthyologist, but who more
correctly described herself as merely a museum curator, died in 2004.
She was the first museum curator at the East London Museum, and was
famed for her chance discovery in 1938, in a catch of Captain Hendrick
Goosen's at a East London,
S.A. fish market, of the coelacanth. The oft-called by the media,
"fossil fish" or "missing link," the coelacanth was previously thought
to have been extinct for 65 million years. The species, first located in
the ocean off South Africa, was given the scientific name Latimeria
chalumnae in her honor by famed South African ichthyologist J. L. B.
also is known to have secured what is possibly the only Dodo egg in the
world. She died of pneumonia on Monday, May 17, 2004, in East London,
Bobb Schaeffer, 90, a curator and international expert on fossil fish,
especially the coelacanth, at the American Museum of Natural History in
New York City, died of kidney failure, on June 2, 2004 at St. John's
Home in Rochester, New York.
Theata Crowe, 66, wife of International Bigfoot Society's founder, Ray
Crowe, was known far and
wide for her Yeti Spaghetti
and Abominable Potato Salad dishes at the potluck dinner meetings of the
group's meeting. She was a lifeforce behind the group. Crowe had a quick
wit about her. This was especially true when it came to commenting to
the media on Bigfooters and their personalities. Once when the story was
going around about a Sasquatch searcher who had borrowed a camper from a
member of the group and returned it in pretty bad shape, Theata Crowe
piped in: "And, he left the thing without any gas!"
Speaking once to a reporter about the lack of monetary incentive lending
credibility to Bigfoot sightings, Theata Crowe joked that she had made
only $7 from her book, "How to Cook a Bigfoot." On Tuesday, September
21, 2004, at about 10 a.m. Pacific time, Theata Crowe lost her battle
with cancer, and moved on to other adventures.
Fred Bradshaw, 57, of Elma, Grays Harbor County, Washington State,
passed away on October
21, 2004. He died suddenly of a heart attack
while on a hunting trip, with a family member. Fred Bradshaw was a
dedicated Sasquatch researcher, who had originally worked as a law
enforcement officer for several years while committing his off-work
hours to the pursuit of Bigfoot, as an unknown species. As a retired
sheriff's officer, Bradshaw spent his time verifying and recording
sightings through his organization, Bigfoot Research, a company based
near Olympia, Washington. Bradshaw also created a forensic business,
Pacific Northwest Special Support Team, for the equal use of law
enforcement agencies and Bigfoot hunters.
Bradshaw first encountered Bigfoot as a child while camping with his
family near the base of Mount St. Helens in the late 1950s. Throughout
the rest of his life, Bradshaw told of having had five encounters with
Bigfoot and also finding their traces infrequently.
Best Cryptozoology Books of 2004
Best General Cryptozoology Book:
Cryptozoology: Science & Speculation by
Chad Arment (Landisville, PA: Coachwhip Publications, 2004)
Best Book on an Understudied Cryptid:
Thunderbirds: America's Living Legends of Giant Birds by Mark A.
Hall (NY: Paraview, 2004)
Best Bigfoot Book:
Meet the Sasquatch by Christopher L. Murphy, with
John Green and Thomas Steenburg (Seattle: Hancock House, 2004)
Best Skeptical Book:
Bigfoot Exposed: An Anthropologist Examines
America's Enduring Legend by David J. Daegling (Chicago: Rowman &
Prediction for Potentially Most Significant Cryptozoology Book of 2005:
Encyclopedia Of Cryptozoology: A Global Guide To Hidden Animals And
Their Pursuers by Michael Newton (Jefferson, NC: McFarland &